原创 史正富 CPEER 2020/73

文章出处:《政治经济学报》第17卷,格致出版社 上海人民出版社,2020年6月

https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s?__biz=MzI0ODY0ODM2Ng==&mid=2247491313&idx=1&sn=bc5c6b522a60eddd523f08e29110bb71&chksm=e99cd930deeb5026babe2f2bd30f9710f51be3a9c223880ce7d018fffb75f16b4488c6c3bde0&mpshare=1&scene=1&srcid=0704V5LqucB1PI8HxBAeGrJb&sharer_sharetime=1593825990345&sharer_shareid=f14234539e09a08e77a9206f4cc494e3&exportkey=AkLJIrrqeODU3g%2FxK26dwHo%3D&pass_ticket=Ui10beJSLeQcDHjAIR7OKV29IeInx0Z8yG1hYu9x93DdzvMtcYYBmpXQtreVldgL&wx_header=0#rd

【摘 要】工业革命以来,货币经过了商品货币时代、信用货币时代的演变,最终发展到了功能货币时代,即因国家政治经济需求而发行货币的时代,货币从价值实体演变为调控工具。在功能货币时代,美国用疑似“国家金融工程”保持了美元的世界货币地位,但也带来了金融业两部类化、经济脱实向虚、收入分配恶化等后果。社会主义的功能货币应引以为鉴,从国家长远发展战略需要和满足人民对美好生活向往出发,建立货币发行“双轨制”,即:在货币发行的“市场轨”之外开辟面向基础性战略性资产(BSA)形成的“战略轨”,央行通过开发性金融机构或基金向宏观战略工程运营主体直接投放货币,以此建立国家长期资本融资的长效机制。

马丁·沃尔夫 实验主义治理 2020/7/2

https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s?__biz=MjM5MTE0MjQ1Nw==&mid=2650323578&idx=1&sn=0708d55a60a8bca80202b37f33264f2b&chksm=beb61d2c89c1943a4c5fc582acfe595abcbdfa3008ac830df60988b2d023a46d1ff6ca397dca&mpshare=1&scene=1&srcid=&sharer_sharetime=1593703980530&sharer_shareid=e23823d28af965bb971fe12a9fbd24fd&exportkey=AqyH2rQKOJ4c%2BC6pV%2FPdcG4%3D&pass_ticket=Ui10beJSLeQcDHjAIR7OKV29IeInx0Z8yG1hYu9x93DdzvMtcYYBmpXQtreVldgL&wx_header=0#rd

这本新书探讨了为何全球冲突更多来自国家内部的裂痕,而不是国家之间的冲突

Nicholas R. Lardy (PIIE) and Tianlei Huang (PIIE)

July 2, 2020 11:15 AM

https://www.piie.com/blogs/china-economic-watch/despite-rhetoric-us-china-financial-decoupling-not-happening

But for all the fireworks over tariffs and investment restrictions, China’s integration into global financial markets continues apace. Indeed, that integration appears on most metrics to have accelerated over the past year. And US-based financial institutions are actively participating in this process, making financial decoupling between the United States and China increasingly unlikely. An examination of the data shows the danger of generalizing based on misleading anecdotal evidence.

REGULATORY REFORM IN CHINA HAS OPENED THE WAY FOR FOREIGN FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

real-world economics review, issue no. 92, 103-115, 2020/6/29

This issue: The Inequality Crisis, http://www.paecon.net/PAEReview/issue92/whole92.pdf

http://www.paecon.net/PAEReview/issue92/Pressman92.pdf

Despite these similarities (of his two books), there are many changes. Gone are r>g and any analysis of inequality that rests on neoclassical economic theory. Capital and Ideology contains a different perspective on the causes of inequality. As its title proclaims, it is our beliefs that are crucial. Piketty undertakes a broad sweep of history to argue that the degree of inequality we get depends on how people see inequality and that this varies from time to time and from place to place. A progressive ideology, leading to greater equality during the 20th century, ran out of steam by the end of the century. It was replaced by the view that markets increase human well-being. There is also a new policy proposal – broader representation on corporate boards.

This paper examines Piketty’s changing views on the causes of inequality and the policy solutions needed to remedy the problem.

real-world economics review, issue no. 92, 48-60, 2020/6/29

http://www.paecon.net/PAEReview/issue92/Baker92.pdf

This issue: The Inequality Crisis, http://www.paecon.net/PAEReview/issue92/whole92.pdf

如何改革資本主義?Baker 認為首先應改革專利與著作權現存的制度。例如,此次疫情凸顯了美國醫療體系的問題,其中製藥公司專注追求專利藥的現象,是問題所在,但也是制度造成。因專利藥帶來壟斷利益,藥廠不單有誘因開發專利藥,更有誘因極力推廣其用途,如近年美國極為嚴重的 opioids的危機,成因之一是藥廠誤導醫生。同時這制度鼓勵保密,不分享成果。

而實際上,如何為研發新藥提供資金,是可以有其他的做法,而不是靠藥廠追求專利壟斷利潤。美國政府每年約投入400億美元給NIH做生醫研究,這金額當可擴大來取代私人藥廠所投入的約 750億美元。處方藥及醫療器材的市場極大,牽涉巨大利潤。

這專利及著作權制度給予一些人巨大的利益。若查看全美最富有的百人中(Forbes),至少有27人主要依靠此等壟斷利益。他們有很大的動力維護他們的利益。

金融產業:這產業占美國GDP的%大幅上升,1970年是0.44%,2018年達到2.35%。如果同意金融業的工作應該服務實質產業,那這數字隱含的意義是金融業的效率大幅下降了,而同時期高級管理層的所得大幅提高了。

網路媒體:1996年美國通過的Communications Decency Act, Section 230, exempts internet intermediaries from being subject to the same rules on libel as traditional media. 這顯然應該修改。